Causes of membrane damage

Causes of membrane damage

Under certain situations and loads, a large number of highly toxic free radicals can form in the tissue: oxides, hydroxides and peroxides. These compounds are chemically very aggressive. They are able to damage cell membranes and cause a variety of disorders of the body. But by themselves, they are not the primary mechanism of tumors, but serve only as a background on which subsequent fatal changes can occur. This is just one of the factors of formation in the body of a large number of defective cells, some of which in the future under the influence of other factors can degenerate into malignant.

For example, in muscles with overloads in conditions of lack of oxygen, oxygen-free oxidation of glucose can increase by 1000 times, accompanied by a huge release of radicals. However, from this cancer cells do not appear.

Any load on the tissue and its cells can gradually lead to disruption of the membranes — it’s injuries, and viruses, and hormonal burden. As a result, the tissues may form a stagnant Pro-inflammatory field.

Therefore, in the theory of carcinogenesis it is necessary to reconsider the importance of carcinogenic substances and radioactive irradiation, primarily damaging the membrane-mitochondrial complex. Carcinogens are not mutagens, but act through membranes.

There is some evidence that cancer cells have morphologically altered mitochondria and membranes. Electron microscopic observations demonstrate the loss of definition and finesse to the structure of their membranes, the swelling of granules — clusters of energy-intensive compounds, etc. They resemble the worn-out mechanisms. This also indicates a significant violation of their quality functions.

The membranes of cancer cells have abnormally high permeability.

Causes of inferiority of membranes:

  • lack of antioxidant system;
  • excessive formation of radicals, carcinogens;
  • viruses and infestations;
  • omega-3 acid deficiency.

The most important cause of membrane deficiency may be omega-3 acid deficiency associated with a lack of consumption of chlorophyll-containing products. Cell membranes consist of two fat and one protein layer. The fat layers are formed from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in a ratio of 3:1. The main thing is the ability of omega-3 to competitively replace omega-6 in cell membranes and metabolism.

Omega-3 hinders the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins that stimulate tumor growth; inhibit (inhibit) the activity of enzymes that promote tumor regeneration; inhibit the activation of oncogenes and growth factors of tumors; prevent the formation of new blood vessels in tumors, the need for intensive feeding of cancer cells (onchangeevent); inhibit the growth and induce the death of tumor cells. In the anticarcinogenic effect of omega-3, its ability to stimulate the immune system and normalize lipid metabolism is important.

It is known that the shell of mitochondria is similar to the cell membrane. The shell has a number of functions, including being the basis for the location on it of the Crist, which are enzymes, provides permeability, isolation of its DNA from radicals. When defective membranes cells out of the optimal mode of operation, weakens the efficiency of their functioning, mitochondria are forced to increase their speed, work uneconomically, up to overheating and DNA damage.

But in nature omega-3 acid is extremely rare. It is believed that the body itself is not produced, but it can be expected that treatment with regular intake of sufficient chlorophyll complexes naturally increase its level. At the same time, I should immediately note that chlorophyll in food should always be a lot to translate lipid metabolism in the direction of self-production of omega-3.

Recent scientific studies have shown that this acid can still be produced in the body against the background of regular use of a large number of green leaves containing chlorophyll, or juice from the greens. But the trouble is that modern man has sharply limited the consumption of green foliage in their diet.

It is in connection with the change in the quality of food, from which chlorophyll-containing products are completely excluded, there is a sharp increase in the incidence of cancer in modern people.

In addition, significantly reduced antioxidant complex in food, why repeatedly weakens and protection of membranes and their sensory structures. All this serves as a prologue for further cell malignancy.

Certain proliferative loads exceeding the functional capabilities of the tissue stimulate excessive proliferation – as a nonspecific protective reaction of the tissue. But this is not the cause of the tumor. To start the cancer process you need a combination of a number of factors, including the instability of the membranes.

In addition, omega-3 is also a lipid acid, which is related not only to the structure of membranes, but also the energy of cells and their mitochondria.

Without fatty acids, enzymes that ensure the absorption of oxygen in the respiratory system do not function. The body begins to suffocate, even if a person breathes clean air. Deficiency of fatty acids undermines the vital functions of the body. Thus, cancer occurs when we lack omega-3.

Obviously, first of all, the lack of omega-3 affects the work of mitochondria, their natural protection from radicals that are constantly formed in the process of breathing. In this case, the acid plays the role of a powerful antioxidant.

In addition, many enzymes are unable to operate normally in the conditions of inferiority of the structure of the membranes. The energy of the cell comes out of the optimal economical energy regime and goes to the work of peddling, which leads to damage to the DNA of mitochondria and their rebirth. This fits well into the energy theories of Oncology. The latter becomes a cornerstone in my diaphragm mitohondrialnoj cancer theory.

My proposed theory of carcinogenesis shows why tumors can and should be treated with natural harmless methods, in particular, with the help of my proposed “catabolic trap“, and explains the real described cases of healing without any barbaric methods of chemo – and other”therapies”.

Due to the lack of omega-3 acid in the body, arachidonic acid is easily converted into prostaglandins, which at the cellular level include mechanisms of inflammation. They serve as a launching pad for the subsequent processes of degeneration of healthy cells into tumor cells.

In recent years, scientists have put forward possible Pro-inflammatory mechanisms as the root cause of tumors at the cellular level.

This can be interpreted so that some Pro-inflammatory processes (in the absence of infection) are not a load on the systemic level of the body, and at the cellular level of certain tissues. For a number of reasons, as a result of such processes, there is a primary and stable violation of the structure of multilayered cell membranes. In certain cases (including omega-3 acid insufficiency) due to membrane structure disorders, there is a mismatch between the conjugation of the membrane pump and the mitochondrial energy stations. This relationship clearly depends on the mitochondrial DNA (but not DNA in the nucleus). From excessive imbalance of relations between these structures and long-term energy load DNA mitochondria begins to deteriorate,”melt”. This leads to the fact that the mitochondria in the cells gradually limit their activity, and then stops the reproduction of mitochondrial organelles (cell aberration, inferiority). In some cases, repair occurs – in cells, and in certain combinations there are stable cell clones that are not capable of repair. The number of mitochondria in cells is significantly reduced.

Consequently, the main programs of the genome of the cell nucleus may be dependent on the energy status of the cell. As a result, the differential genes are switched off to various degrees, which determines the degree of malignancy and the type of tumor. A new generation of such cells, while maintaining the normal functions of the nucleus genome, do not restore the mitochondrial genome. It is still there, but cut, due to the fact that partially “knocked” relay lines and need a lot more effort to start all the power machines. Cells become defective. As a result, they are forced to move to a primitive level of energy supply. To do this, the cell must change its internal homeostasis, transform the mode of operation. This is manifested in the switching programs of the nucleus genome, as the genetic constants that determined the previous work of the genetic apparatus have changed due to the conditions that previously determined the mitochondria. The work of mitochondria was associated with the functioning of the nucleus genome — in the new conditions of this corrective dominant mitochondria no. This is the reason for the emancipation, expression of a number of previously closed genetic programs. As a result, the inclusion of ancient primitive programs with glycolysis energy.

This type of energy does not allow to connect the higher differential programs of development and, therefore, cells can function only on vegetative principles of existence. These primary programs are much stronger than subsequent layers. Cells gradually lose their differentiation, roll down to primitive levels. Such secondary genetic readjustments and disturbances in the cells can not be designated as mutations. This is just a universal mechanism of cell rearrangements associated with energy disturbances caused by changes in the mitochondria and membranes.

Now a lot of work is devoted to the search for genes (oncogenes) that determine Oncology. It is more correct to say that all those genes that are described today as determining the cancer process are not. They’re just a manifestation of the secondary rearrangement of the nucleus genome. They are merely a reflection of altered intracytoplasmic homeostatic constants and the workings of mitochondria.

The famous protein p53 which is a tumor suppressor development of cancerous tumors that is encoded in humans genome ТР53. This protein is extremely important for multicellular organisms. It regulates the cell cycle and can serve as an anti-oncogen, i.e. prevent the development of cancer.

Mechanisms of anti-cancer functions of p53 several. He recognizes the damage chromosomal DNA and can trigger the temporary cessation of cell division in the so-called points of regulation of the cell cycle. P53 protein is also able to activate the genes of proteins that repair DNA damage (for example, in the degeneration of cells into cancer). During the pause proteins that restore DNA, get the necessary time to work. If DNA restores normal function, the cells begin to divide again, and their cancer does not occur. If DNA damage can not be corrected, the protein p53 is able to start the process of apoptosis — programmed cell death. In a similar way, the protein p53 may respond to other cellular stresses.

The activity of tumor suppressor p53 was studied under the action of various stresses. One of the types of cellular stress — disruption of the respiratory chain of mitochondria.

What is the mitochondrial respiratory chain?

In the process of energy conversion, energy-rich electrons contained in nutrients are used. Electron transfer proceeds sequentially through a series of complex protein complexes (with numbers from 1 to 4) floating in the mitochondrial membrane and forming a “respiratory chain”. Moving along this chain, the electrons consistently move to lower energy levels and eventually connect with the oxygen of the air we breathe. In this case, the energy given by electrons is converted into biologically useful forms, in particular, into the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

It turned out that when the electron transport chain was blocked at the level of complexes 1, 2 or 4, the activity of the tumor suppressor p53 remained at the initial low level. However, in violation of electron transport through the complex 3 of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, a significant activation of the protein p53 occurred.

This means that by themselves, the problems in the respiratory chain are not as important for the cell as stopping the flow of electrons through the complex 3.

In the latter case, the signal of misfortune is quickly transmitted to the cell nucleus, the level and activity of p53 increase dramatically, resulting in the activation of genes responsible for stopping the cell cycle. Cells stop dividing, and after a while they turn on the mechanism of programmed cell death — apoptosis.

Since problems in the respiratory chain occur in the mitochondria, and activated p53 works in another part of the cell, in the nucleus, there must be a way to transmit the signal from the mitochondria to the cell nucleus. Did a search of this signaling pathway. We cannot say that we have found all its links, but the key link has been identified. It was found that the signal transmission is responsible for the enzyme DHODH, which is involved in the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides (monomer blocks for the synthesis of new DNA and RNA molecules). This enzyme is located in the itochondrial membrane near the complex 3 of the respiratory chain. Stopping the flow of electrons through the complex 3 leads to disruption of this enzyme and, as a consequence, to stop the synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides.

The synthesis of RNA and DNA occurs in the cell nucleus, and a violation of each of these processes can lead to the activation of p53. It is shown that the lack of monomer blocks for the formation of new RNA and DNA molecules in a dividing cell is the cause of p53 activation. Thus, the addition of pyrimidine nucleotides to the medium for cell growth turned off the activation of p53 in inhibition of complex 3, and the cells survived.

It was shown for the first time that the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is a link between the respiratory chain of mitochondria and tumor suppressor p53.

The benefits that we offer aberrant theory of cancer is that it can help to build a logical, sequential model oncoprotein that can fit and not fit into the previous model for energy and anabolic-catabolic disorders at the cellular level. In particular, it becomes much clearer why the glycolysis metabolism of the tumor is eight times stronger than the glycolysis of a healthy working muscle, and a hundred times stronger than in the resting tissue.

The whole oncogenic process begins with the change of energy processes.

The methodology of the treatment based on the proposed membranemembrane cancer theory. The fact is that the suppression of cancer cells with the help of focused catabolism is the solution to only part of the problem. With the help of the proposed method, we can not only reduce the volume of the tumor, but also completely get rid of it and metastases.

But this will not be enough. Since the primary mechanisms of malignant degeneration of cells are not completely eliminated, there is a risk of recurrence of the disease. Only by eliminating the base on which the process can resume, you can completely get rid of the pathology. To do this, the mandatory link of treatment should be the restoration of the membrane-mitochondrial complex.

As you know, mitochondria are structures that carry out the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) — the main energy unit of the whole Kingdom of life. Usually mitochondria are small (1/2-3 microns long) intracellular formations located in places where it is necessary to use energy for any vital processes. Long and branched mitochondria can energetically provide distant from each other areas of the cell. Mitochondrial membranes are able to conduct energy.

Improving the overall efficiency and stability of the remission process can be achieved by using linseed oil containing omega-3 acid.

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