I want to say that most often precancerous diseases of the stomach and cancer are associated with problems of nutrition, living conditions, individual and social behavior.

Moreover, there is also a climate factor. Precancerous stomach diseases are more common in Northern countries than in southern countries, which is explained by the habit in Northern countries to eat hotter food and strong drinks. However, this is not the rule: in southern countries, such as Japan and Chile, stomach cancer is as common as in Northern countries. Violation of the rhythm of nutrition and related changes in secretory function lead to the appearance of various painful changes in the stomach.

Chronic gastritis is observed in people so often that its relationship with cancer is quite possible, but not every gastritis turns into cancer. In most cases, patients suffering from gastritis, according to the doctor’s prescription, take various medicinal substances, regulate the composition of food, the time of its intake and exclude various irritating substances from it. Thus, gastritis is either completely cured, or it is in a state that does not pose a danger for the appearance of a malignant tumor.

Gastritis are different: some occur with an increase in the acidity of the stomach contents, others-with a sharp decrease in it, and others – with a complete lack of acidity (achilia). In atrophic gastritis, developed in patients suffering from Achilles, the surface of the stomach mucosa is flat, shiny. Patients with chronic atrophic gastritis are very sensitive to changes in food. They have so called dyspeptic disorders: heaviness in the stomach after eating, rotten belching, heartburn after at least minor errors in the diet. Any changes in the usual composition of food, its preparation cause small pains at first, which then become permanent, increase after eating, sometimes accompanied by nausea. Patients suffering from chronic gastritis are under dispensary observation in a polyclinic. They must follow all the doctor’s instructions. Treatment of gastritis is conservative, but at the slightest suspicion of gastritis turning into cancer, it is necessary to take advice about urgent surgery. Stomach polyps are more likely to undergo progressive growth than gastritis. A stomach polyp is a growth on its mucous membrane in the form of an elongated papilla on a leg, similar to a raspberry berry. They can be single or multiple. Until recently, it was believed that stomach polyps are a rare disease. However, with the availability of modern diagnostic methods, they began to be detected more and more often. In the occurrence of stomach polyps, an important role is played by irritating impurities to food, various inflammatory diseases of the stomach of infectious origin. A predisposition to the development of stomach polyps is also possible. There have been cases of stomach polyposis in several generations of the same family. Multiple stomach polyps sometimes affected not only the stomach, but also the intestinal tract (from the stomach to the rectum inclusive). They were found in adolescence, sometimes even from childhood, and in adulthood and old age reached significant sizes. These polyps are dangerous in relation to their transition to cancer, while polyps caused by irritating substances or inflammatory processes pass into cancer much less often. The course of gastric polyposis is characterized by duration and low-expressed signs. In single large polyps of the stomach, the General phenomena are the same as in gastritis, but there is often bleeding, which may be either very slight or abundant, causing the patient to become anemic. Treatment of gastric polyposis is operative.

Gastric ulcer is accompanied by a number of signs that usually prompt patients to consult a doctor with a ready-made diagnosis, and the doctor only needs to establish the presence of a patient with a stomach ulcer and prescribe appropriate treatment. The gastric mucosa is significantly affected by tobacco combustion products ingested when Smoking with saliva. They cause a violation of the normal motor ability of the stomach, slowing down peristalsis, increase the secretion of the stomach vodka, alcohol, moonshine and other strong alcoholic beverages when they are constantly consumed. It should be pointed out that the question of the heredity of gastric ulcer in humans has not yet been proven, but it is clearly established that harmful or close to homogeneous conditions of life, habits, methods of cooking in various family members cause them to have “family” gastric ulcer.

The main sign of stomach ulcers is pain, which is often the only complaint of the patient. It has a number of features in various patients with peptic ulcer disease. So, its location on the right under the rib is observed more often in duodenal ulcer, and in the pit of the stomach – in gastric ulcer. As a rule, the onset of pain is associated with eating. It occurs in every patient after a strictly defined time after eating. At the same time, it is believed that the pain that appears an hour after eating is the so – called early pain, and after a longer period of time and on an empty stomach (hungry pain) – late pain. They often occur at night, most often in the first half of sleep. The early pain point to stomach ulcer, late on peptic ulcer of the duodenum. The relationship of pain with the quantity and quality of food taken is of great importance for determining where the ulcer is located. There is a clear dependence of pain on the physical properties and set of products, on their composition. The ulcer also occurs on the duodenum, mainly during the first 2-6 cm from the place of transition of the stomach to the duodenum. Unlike stomach ulcers, duodenal ulcers do not tend to turn into cancer. This is established by numerous long-term observations on a large number of patients. Stomach ulcer is a manifestation of a General disease of the entire body, in which there are a number of disorders in the metabolism, blood composition, endocrine glands and, most importantly, in the nervous system. It is established that gastric ulcer often develops after neuropsychiatric shocks. The formation of ulcers in the stomach caused by the following factors: violations of rhythm and power, the continued existence of gastritis with high acidity of gastric contents, the impact on the stomach diseases of neighboring organs (appendicitis), non-inflammatory diseases of female genital sphere, worm infestation, Smoking, alcohol consumption, family history, lack of protein and fat. Eating disorders (disorderly eating with long intervals between meals) are particularly important for nervous people who have a tendency to upset the secretory function of the stomach. According to some scholars, this creates the conditions for the acid-digestive effect of gastric juice on the mucous membrane of the stomach. In people suffering from stomach ulcers, eating disorders, diets contribute to the occurrence of a return of the disease (relapses), especially if the usual eating hours reflexively secrete gastric juice, and food does not enter the stomach. After taking spices, poorly ground and coarse food, the pain is intense and occurs very quickly. This is typical for stomach ulcers. And in peptic ulcer disease duodenal ulcer pain often does not depend on the quality or composition of the food. It occurs periodically during the day. Some patients have it in the daytime, while others have it in the evening or at night. This regularity of pain occurring daily at certain hours is a characteristic sign of peptic ulcer disease. It should be noted that pain in peptic ulcer disease and without treatment can subside or completely stop for a period of time, sometimes even up to 4-8 months. However, if you examine such a patient with x-rays, you will find that the ulcer has not healed. Dyspeptic disorders are primarily a feeling of heaviness and pressure in the epigastric region, belching and heartburn. Especially often patients complain of persistent sour-bitter heartburn. With all these phenomena, you need to consult a doctor for examination. Determining the state of gastric secretion is also essential for establishing a treatment plan. In conclusion, an x-ray examination of the stomach is performed. Chronic, often recurring stomach ulcers usually exist for many years, have a long cycle of course with a change of exacerbation and attenuation of the process to complete well-being for several months, and sometimes up to 2-3 years. Under the influence of a nervous shock or a gross violation of the diet, an exacerbation of stomach ulcers occurs. The diagnosis is confirmed by repeated x-ray examination. Such late exacerbations of stomach ulcers are observed in mass natural disasters and diseases, and then there is a so-called ulcer epidemic. A chronic, often recurrent ulcer is much more likely to turn into cancer than a fresh, newly acquired one. The greatest risk of progression to cancer are callous ulcers of the stomach. They often bleed. Only surgery can save such patients from cancer. Indications for surgery to prevent the possibility of ulcer transition to cancer can be long-existing ulcers that persistently do not respond to treatment (neither therapeutic, nor resort, nor dietary); ulcers with thickened, dense and rough edges (callous), which especially often turn into cancer; stomach ulcers that cause repeated bleeding. If in the presence of one of the listed forms of ulcer, the doctor offers the patient surgery, then the patient who wants to protect himself from the possibility of cancer must necessarily consent to the operation.

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