Currently, the most common female genital cancer affects the cervix, in second place – the ovaries, in third place – the vagina and external genitals. Precancerous cervical disease detected during mass preventive examinations is 3-5 %. Precancerous diseases of the cervix include chronic inflammatory processes, as well as diseases in which the elements of the cervical mucosa grow (hyperplastic changes).
Cervical erosions occur mainly due to inflammatory processes of the cervical canal and the uterine cavity in the presence of secretions. Very often, these secretions are corrosive, with a sharp smell and, getting on the mucous membrane of the cervical canal, cause persistent, chronic inflammation. The long-term existence of erosion can lead to the formation of an ulcer on it, which can later turn into cancer. For the treatment of cervical erosion, irrigation of the vagina and cervix is used with special, non-irritating douches. Of great importance in the prevention of diseases of the cervical canal is the refusal to use various irritating substances as a means of protecting against pregnancy. Leukoplakia and polyposis of the cervical canal mucosa are also available to modern methods of treatment.
It should be noted that cervical polyps rarely degenerate into cancer, since, accompanied by bloody discharge at unusual periods for menstruation, they are very quickly diagnosed and undergo radical and timely removal. As for inversions of the mucous membrane of the birth canal, they occur as a result of incorrect or completely untreated birth trauma of the cervix. Currently, the examination of maternity hospitals and suturing existing ruptures immediately after delivery are becoming important measures in the prevention of precancerous diseases.
If the consequences of a birth injury to the cervix are not eliminated in a timely manner, i.e. the gaps are left unprotected, then most women will be doomed to the fact that sooner or later they may develop precancerous disease on the basis of these postpartum injuries to the cervix. With prolonged chronic bleeding from the uterine cavity, prolonged menstruation, you should consult a doctor and, if necessary, give consent to scraping the uterine cavity for diagnosis. A woman should firmly remember that her period should end on time. Any changes in the menstrual cycle also in the menopausal period should alert a woman.
Precancerous diseases of the uterine body include glandular hyperplasia of the mucous membrane, i.e. the proliferation of various glands present in the uterine mucosa. These growths can lead to polyposis in the future. Fibromyomas and fibroids of the uterine body are benign tumors. They should be removed only when there is an increase in them, especially in the first 10 days after the end of menstruation. To pre-cancerous diseases of the ovaries include ovarian cysts, of which the most dangerous are papillary. All ovarian cysts in women in the early stages of development are usually asymptomatic and are diagnosed only during a gynecological examination. Any recognized cyst should be removed.
The development of vaginal cancer is usually preceded by leukoplakia. In unscrupulous women, corrosive pain leads to the fact that leukoplakia turns into ulcers, which can later become the ground for cancer. These diseases are usually long-term and chronic. In advanced cases, conservative treatment can be difficult, especially for women who are negligent about their health and miss appointments and appearances in the clinic. It should be remembered that vaginal cancer is more dangerous than even cervical cancer, so all chronic inflammatory diseases of the vagina should be treated in a hospital setting. Preventive examination of women and therapeutic measures to eliminate precancerous diseases have led to the fact that the number of women with malignant neoplasms has decreased approximately 4-5 times during the post-war years. But at the same time, the percentage of detected precancerous diseases increases every year.
This is a very good sign, indicating that women understand that the task of combating cancer of the female genital organs includes eliminating pre-cancerous diseases. Every woman, whether she is ill or healthy, if she visited a polyclinic or outpatient clinic for some reason, should go to the examination room for a professional examination-to check the condition of her genitals.
It should be remembered that precancerous disease of the female genital organs may not give any symptoms and can only be detected during a preventive (preventive) examination.
Based on the examination of a huge number of women, it was found that the most common precancerous diseases of the female genital area are cervical erosion, cervical polyps, benign uterine tumors, ovarian cysts. They should be identified and treated promptly.