Daily observations of patients, supported by animal experiments, allow us to establish that intestinal cancer is localized mainly in the colon. Predisposing factors are often repeated mechanical irritation of the mucous membrane, chronic inflammatory processes of the colon, and intestinal polyposis. Colon cancer develops more often in places of physiological narrowing, where fecal masses can stagnate, and in the blind and sigmoid colon. Here, due to their anatomical structure and physiological functions, feces are usually delayed for a long time, which is necessary for the proper (physiological) functioning of the large intestine. But if the stool is delayed too long, which happens, as a rule, with constipation, then due to the absorption of water, it becomes hard, irritates the mucous membrane of the colon, resulting in its inflammation – colitis.

The pus and mucus released in this case cause irritation of the rectum, itching in the area of the anus. Patients comb the exit part of the rectum, contributing to the formation of cracks, abrasions and polypous growths. Irritation of the large intestine can also be caused by the use of substandard products, poorly chewed food, and infectious bowel diseases, such as dysentery. The further stage of development of untreated chronic colitis is ulcerative colitis. The longer ulcers exist, the sooner they turn into dense infiltrates – the so-called callous ulcers of the large intestine. With a long-term existence (15-16 years), these ulcers are the soil on which malignant tumors of the large intestine can occur in the future. The causes of rectal polyps are still not known, but the role of long-term chronic inflammatory conditions of the rectal mucosa, most often after colitis, proctitis, etc., has been noted. The size of the polyps in this case, of course, deserves attention.

They range in size from a lentil grain to a large plum. The larger the polyp, the more irritations it is subject to, the more evidence that it can later turn into a malignant tumor. But small polyps can also be sources of cancer. Polyps that are dense to the touch, more often than soft, serve as a ground for cancer. If they do not bleed, they usually flow relatively benign for many years.

However, then there are pain in the anus, bleeding and exiting the anus along with the feces of individual nodules. In order to identify the source of bleeding, a special examination of the large intestine is performed. In the case of polyposis, this determines not only the location of colon polyps, but also their size. Rarely do polyps exist as a single disease, most often they are accompanied by hemorrhoid lumps and loss of the mucous membrane and cracks in the anus. Polyps should be considered as potential malignancies. Therefore, even harmless rectal polyps should be removed in order to prevent rectal cancer. Patients after surgery to remove polyps are subjected to a systematic examination of the rectum to detect and remove new polyps in a timely manner. Very often, there are multiple polyps in the rectum.

They are also subject to surgical treatment. On the basis of hemorrhoids, cancer also sometimes occurs. It should be noted that rectal cancer is often regarded by patients as hemorrhoids; they comfort themselves with this explanation and often miss not only precancerous rectal disease, but also the initial form of cancer. Therefore, every person suffering from hemorrhoids must be seen by a doctor. If the disease of hemorrhoids is delayed for a long time, then surgical treatment is necessary. Especially dangerous is bleeding hemorrhoids, as well as hemorrhoids with ulcers. In addition, the inflammatory processes of the rectum-proctitis and paraproctitis-are also important. Rectal papillomas are warty tumors located mainly in the place where the mucous membrane of the rectum passes into the skin.

These small growths often bother patients, causing itching and irritation after the act of defecation. They are subject to surgical removal. Cracks in the skin and the fold of the mucous membrane of the anus, especially existing for many years and persistently not treatable, can also be the site of cancer development. Around them, there is an inflammation that turns into a chronic one. Along the edges of the cracks, there are polypoid growths of the mucous membrane, which can later turn into cancer, so persistently non-healing cracks of the anus are subject to excision. Scars, fistulas, and rectal abscesses can also be the site of cancer if they persist in not being cured and are often ulcerated. Currently, methods of surgical treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases of the rectum, as well as fistulas, scars, polyps and hemorrhoids are so well developed that their timely elimination leads to recovery.

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