Development begins with the fact that some group of cells under the influence of certain reasons partially out of such control and begins to multiply on their own. This group of cells is the primary focus of the tumor. The reproduction of cells in it acquires a kind of Autonomous character. The resulting cells in some cases, developing, gradually become “Mature”, in their structure approaching the cells of the tissue from which they originated, in other cases, achieve this only partially, or even remain “immature”, completely losing resemblance to normal cells of this tissue.
It is clear that the degree of maturity of cells determines the degree of malignancy of the tumor: the more Mature the cells reach, the less malignant the tumor, and Vice versa. At the same time, tumors with different degrees of malignancy can develop in the same organ. The malignancy of the tumor is manifested in its tendency to progressive growth, the ability to germinate surrounding tissues and form portable foci of tumor growth away from the primary focus – the so-called metastases.
It is also necessary to say that often there is an adverse effect of the tumor on metabolism: it distorts the exchange, in connection with which there is a gradual poisoning of the body by the products of disturbed metabolism, exhaustion develops. All these properties are manifested in different types of tumors and are not expressed in the same way. The most permanent property of a malignant tumor is its tendency to progressive growth. Such cases are very carefully studied, as they suggest that the human body, apparently, has some protective means against the tumor, which under certain conditions can stop tumor growth. It is possible that the occurrence in the human body of an alien tumor focus leads to the formation of so-called antibodies, similar to those that are formed in many infectious diseases in response to the effects of microbes. All this is of great interest, as new opportunities for the treatment of tumor diseases are opening up: if we learn to stimulate in the right direction the protective mechanisms of the human body and encourage them to more actively develop antitumor antibodies, we will help the body to fight the tumor more successfully.
As I said, the most common form of malignant tumors is cancer. Statisticians estimate that on the globe for every 100 thousand population annually on average 135 people get cancer. As it may seem at first glance, there is a clear steady increase in the incidence of cancer. But, first, with the development of medical science, over the years, decades, undoubtedly improved methods of recognition and detection of cancer. These figures are summary and apply to the entire population, without regard to their age. At the same time, it is well known that cancer is a disease of people mainly elderly. This is easy to see by looking at the following figures. Among 100 thousand men under the age of 30 years, the annual number of cancer cases is 7-8 people. In the same group of men aged 30 to 39 years, the number of cases is already 48-50 people, aged 40 to 49 years-185 people. In the next decade of life, that is, between the ages of 50 and 59 years, the number of cancer cases for every 100 thousand. men is already 460 people, and over the age of 60 years, this figure is almost doubled – 820-830 people. Approximately the same dependence on age can be established by analyzing the incidence of cancer among women. As statistics show, these figures for a long time remain almost constant-their fluctuations in one direction or the other are very small.
Yes, in principle, it all depends on the person. It is well known that with the change for the better of economic, material and social conditions of life of people, with the improvement of their well-being increases and life expectancy. The increase in life expectancy leads to an increase in the number of older people. Among people of this age, as we have seen, the incidence of cancer is very high, so it is natural that cancer patients are becoming more and more. In countries where human life expectancy does not exceed 35-40 years, there is often a relatively low incidence of cancer, due largely to the fact that people simply do not live to the age at which cancer is most common. But I want to reassure you-the increase in the absolute number of cancer patients does not mean that people have become more likely to get this disease. However, if there is no convincing evidence of an increase in the overall incidence of cancer, some changes in the frequency of individual forms of cancer over time can be noted. For example, the incidence of lung cancer has undoubtedly increased in recent decades, while the incidence of stomach cancer in some groups has shown a downward trend. Naturally, people have questions: whether it is possible to protect yourself from cancer – to prevent it. Yes, the current level of our scientific knowledge in the field of the causes of cancer and its development makes cancer prevention, although difficult, but quite possible under one indispensable condition: that it is engaged not only in the state and society, but also in individual groups, families, each person. State measures, the efforts of health workers, active public activity and individual struggle against various hazards that undermine human health and cause diseases preceding cancer, will result in a decrease in the incidence of cancer, and subsequently the complete elimination of this serious disease in our country. This statement is based on modern knowledge of living conditions that contribute to the disease of people with cancer; on existing methods of elimination and elimination of harmful effects on the body; on the development of methods for the treatment of diseases preceding the occurrence of cancer. In our country there are all opportunities for a fruitful struggle for human health, the first of which is the full availability and free of charge of highly qualified medical care to the population. The condition of the organism depends directly on the influence of external conditions of existence, and the disease does not occur immediately or suddenly; it is caused and maintained for a long time by external causes. An important role in the prevention of malignant neoplasms is played by measures to protect against pollution of air, soil, seas, rivers, sources of water supply of the population with drinking water, reservoirs with waste, waste and sewage of factories and construction sites. You need to give up bad habits and skills: careless attitude to the hygiene of your body, to clothes, neglect of cleanliness not only in everyday life, but also at work, alcohol abuse and Smoking, violations of food hygiene. I want to say that cancer affects a variety of organs. The esophagus, stomach, large intestine, pancreas, liver, larynx, lungs, breast and uterus, skin, oral mucosa, tongue-these are the most frequent localization of cancer. Scientists have long drawn attention to the fact that the frequency of different locations of cancer in different countries of the world, among different nationalities and nationalities varies. This is a very interesting and important fact in practical terms.
So, LOI race. The incidence of breast cancer among women in European countries is much higher than among women of Eastern nationalities. Liver cancer occurs in some countries in Africa and Southeast Asia. Skin cancer is more common in people living in countries of southern latitudes. The uneven spread of cancer is found even within one country, especially one that has a large territory. On the contrary, some republics have the highest rates of esophageal cancer. In addition, the uneven incidence of cancer of a particular location is sometimes found even among the population of the same Republic, which has a relatively small territory, when comparing the incidence in its different areas. Scientists around the world pay great attention to these issues. Serious and large-scale studies are being conducted in this direction, in particular, in our country. The uneven distribution is due to not one but a number of reasons. But before proceeding to their consideration, it is necessary to briefly get acquainted with the existing theories of cancer.