Based on modern facts, I want to tell you that cancer never occurs in people with normal physiological functions, with normal metabolism, in unchanged tissues. It is clinically and experimentally established that some pathological processes more often than others precede the appearance of a tumor. Therefore, these chronic processes are called precancerous or precancerous diseases. But the occurrence of a malignant tumor in a person suffering from these diseases is not mandatory. I can give you a few examples. Chronic gastritis is a very common disease, and a malignant tumor of the stomach occurs in a very small percentage of cases. A faulty denture that injures the edge of the tongue is a frequent phenomenon, but a malignant tumor occurs only in some of those who are subjected to this trauma. Many people have the habit of picking off a wart or a pimple on their face, tearing off the crust from a long-term wound that does not heal, but not everyone in this place develops a malignant tumor. Most precancerous diseases are only a favorable background for the occurrence of a malignant tumor, but this occurrence is optional, so they are called optional precancerous diseases. The risk of cancer on the basis of precancerous disease for each patient is not very high. With a significant spread of them among the population, the total number of cases can be a significant amount. Therefore, the fight against these diseases-the identification of patients and timely qualified treatment of them-is not only the task of cancer institutions.
It should also be noted that the account of these patients and qualified treatment is carried out in women’s consultations and gynecological offices-patients with diseases of the external genitals, pigmented formations with a tendency to growth and ulceration, erosions and polyps of the cervix, glandular polyps of the mucous membrane, benign ovarian tumors; therapists-patients with chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, chronic ulcerative colitis; in surgeons – patients with nodular and diffuse mastopathy, papillomas of the lower lip, single and multiple polyps of the rectum, long – term non – healing cracks and fistulas of the anal canal; in dental institutions, dentists-patients with pathology of the oral mucosa, long-term non-healing ulcers and cracks of the mucous membrane after the elimination of their causes; in otolaryngological institutions, otolaryngologists-patients with papillomas of the nasal mucosa, nasopharynx, larynx and trachea; in skin-venereal dispensaries, dermatologists – patients with long – term non-healing ulcers and fistulas, with age spots and warts of congenital and acquired character, especially in places that are subject to frequent traumatization, or with an increase in their size, density; with senile keratoses, skin horn; urologists – patients with pathology of the bladder, papillomas; chronic cystitis of professional etiology (workers anilinokrasochnoy industry). Oncologists monitor the registration and treatment of patients with precancerous diseases in these institutions and General medical offices. They periodically monitor the registration and treatment of such patients. Among precancerous diseases, there are some that differ in a higher percentage of the possible transition of the process to cancer. There are pre-tumor diseases in which the moment of malignant degeneration is difficult to determine. Unfortunately, there are also such pre-tumor processes that necessarily lead eventually to malignant growth. They are called obligate (mandatory) pre-cancers. These diseases are few. Obligate pre-cancers are subject to direct observation in cancer institutions. Treatment of these patients is carried out in the directions of oncologists and under their control. Diseases with an increased possibility of malignant growth and requiring special methods for determining the beginning of tumor growth include gastric ulcer, focal gastritis, family polyposis of the large intestine. Patients with precancerous diseases are subject to radical treatment in specialized institutions. This treatment is often complex and lengthy. Like any sane person, the patient does not often agree to such extensive interventions, if the disease proceeds without blood loss and disorders of bowel function. In some patients, this intervention is associated with a certain risk. At the same time, patients who are registered in the Oncology office are subjected to systematic monitoring every 3-6 months, conservative therapy and dietetic treatment in order to prevent additional injury to polyps and remove the accompanying inflammatory component. But still, in the case of detection during the next control study of malignant growth, the indications for surgical treatment become vital. In some precancerous diseases of the skin of the face, when radical treatment is associated with the application of cosmetic and moral damage, observation is also carried out, and in necessary cases – conservative therapy that reduces the risk of malignant growth. At the first signs of the beginning of tumor growth, the indications for radical treatment expand, they become vital.
In addition, the formation of precancerous diseases and cancer in a person is influenced by his genetic Constitution, hormonal balance, improperly organized nutrition, the presence in the environment of specific and non-specific harmful factors that change the internal environment of a person. The precancerous state of the body is a chronic disease that develops from constantly acting stimuli. At first it is invisible to the person, but over time, sometimes very long, there are non-cancerous chronic diseases in any organ or tissues. If you detect these diseases in time, eliminate their causes, and subject the patient to timely treatment, you can prevent the formation of a malignant tumor in the body. The presence of a General disease state of the entire body as a precursor to the occurrence of cancer of any organ, as the soil on which cancer can develop, is recognized by all oncologists and clinicians.
I want to emphasize once again, based on numerous studies, that cancer does not always occur even on well-prepared soil for it, i.e. not every precancerous disease ends with the appearance of cancer. In view of the significance of the data obtained, it is necessary to dwell on them in some detail, first of all on the doctrine of immunity.
Let’s look at the mechanisms of human protection, through which a person lives and develops, resisting any infection and pathology. Immunity refers to the immunity of the body to infectious principles (bacteria, viruses) or to any foreign substance. In essence, it is the ability of the body to accurately “recognize” genetically alien material that has penetrated from outside or originated in the body, and destroy it. Immunity in the body is carried out by a set of hereditary or individually acquired during life factors that prevent the penetration and reproduction in the tissues and organs of pathogenic microbes and the action of their products. Foreign bodies (including cancer cells) that have entered the body or formed in it, cause responses, so they are destroyed. We can say that any cell that is different (mutant) from the genetically constant type of cells in the body, even if only one gene, is inevitably regarded as a foreign one and is removed from the body. This also applies to cancer cells, which, due to the appearance of new genetic forms, are alien to the body. In immunology, there are natural immunity (innate), immunity acquired by a person during life after
successfully transferred infections, and immunity artificial-so-called immunization (for example, vaccinations against rabies, tetanus, etc.). It is established that the protective system of the human body consists of two biological substances: antibodies-proteins produced by the body as a response to the appearance of foreign matter in organs and tissues, and lymphocytes – one of the types of white blood cells produced by the bone marrow. Immunity, both natural and acquired, can be General (immunity to many pathological harms) and specific (ie. to only one specific disease). Especially specific is the immunity caused by immunization against a single infection (smallpox, tetanus, rabies, etc.). Therefore, the immune system is the body’s first line of defense against foreign and harmful bacteria, viruses, foreign cells and, in particular, cancer cells (mutants). Scientists ‘observations of the interaction of cell formations in the body have established that in the process of dying off outdated cells and replacing them with new, young ones, there are always mutant cells, and no matter how perfect the “apparatus” that ensures the identity of the daughter cells, there can always be cells with an incorrect copy of the mother cells. They are “strangers” who have changed their properties in the process of cell division. In fact, all people have mutant cells in the process of cellular regeneration of organs and tissues, but the body’s health is protected by an amazing, flawless immune system, whose tasks include the identification, destruction and rejection of “alien” cells or even their minor groups. The failure of the immunobiological system of the body leads to the formation of colonies of cancer cells, they are grouped into a tumor, and then there is a malignant disease, the fight against which becomes more difficult as the tumor grows and is often ineffective. The General immune system can be strengthened, but, unfortunately, due to unreasonable behavior of people, the immune defense gradually weakens. Accordingly, cancer develops in some people slowly (for years), and in others rapidly, within a few months. Innate lack of immunity in humans is, fortunately, very rare. At the same time, children get cancer at an early age and quickly die – the tumor develops rapidly. In adults, the immune defense is weakened and becomes untenable as a result of various adverse environmental factors, and mainly due to bad habits and skills. This may explain the different locations of cancer in humans. Substances that are harmful to the human body and its defenses may come into contact, for example, with the skin, with the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, with the lungs, etc. there Is a disease of the organ-precancerous, and if the contact of this organ with the harmful substance is not eliminated, then a true cancer will develop. There are special substances, when irritated by which in the experiment in living tissues and organs in animals, such changes occur in the tissues, on the basis of which cancer occurs. These substances are called carcinogens. Some of them are common in the atmosphere of cities, in our homes, can get and form in food, etc. they are relatively easy to eliminate, observing a number of hygiene regulations.
However, I want to reassure you and say that their presence alone is not enough for the occurrence of precancerous disease. In addition, their specific combinations are important, in which their effect is significantly enhanced. This is the so-called summation of action. Knowledge of this process will allow us to prevent the formation of cancer by curing the patient of precancerous diseases. And this is many times easier to do than to cure a patient of already developed cancer. In medicine, it has long been established that cancer arises from the epithelial cells of the organ or cells of the tissue on which it develops. It is known that in the body of a healthy person there are constantly physiological processes of replacing aging cells with new ones. The formation of a malignant tumor occurs when the mechanisms that regulate cell growth are weakened. There is a boundless, unrestrained reproduction of cells, and, most importantly, they lose their normal functions, acquire new properties-grow into neighboring organs and tissues, destroy them, give metastases to other, even remote from the primary focus of the body. Cancer cells become Autonomous from the body in which they originated, absorb amino acids, enzymes and vitamins, and lead the body to death.
Let’s dive into history and see how the doctrine of cancer has evolved. One of the earliest theories – proposed by the German scientist Kongeymom theory of germinal germs. Kongame believed that during the development of the human body in different parts of the body of the embryo may be more cells than necessary for the construction of this part of the body. These cells, being as if unused, can move to other organs and tissues. They do not reproduce, but potentially retain a high ability to reproduce and grow. This kind of dormant beginnings can remain in a quiet, unchanging state for a long time-years and decades, and then suddenly begin to multiply rapidly, forming a tumor.
A little later, the German scientist Virchow more than 100 years ago suggested that repeated mechanical or chemical irritation of tissues is important for the occurrence of cancer. He drew attention, for example, to the fact that cancerous tumors of the stomach often occur in its output Department, in the area of the so – called pylorus-muscle pulp, which delays the exit from the stomach of food masses. There is a certain stagnation of food masses, which systematically, day after day to some extent injure the gastric mucosa. Virchow’s theory was called the theory of irritation. Subsequent observations confirmed his assumptions. For example, observations on the development of skin cancer in chimney sweeps suggested that furnace soot is hardly the only substance that has the ability to cause tumor growth in tissues when they come into contact with them.
In confirmation, I can offer you a number of examples. Coal tar and dust, paraffin, a number of aniline paints, some mineral oils, chemical compounds containing chromium, arsenic, etc. currently, the number of known carcinogens is estimated in the hundreds. In order to prove the carcinogenic effect of all these substances in the laboratories of many countries of the world, numerous experiments have been made on animals-mice, rats, Guinea pigs, rabbits, monkeys. It became clear that the ultraviolet part of the solar spectrum has a carcinogenic property. To prove this, experiments were made with irradiation of animals with the rays of a mercury-quartz lamp. As you might expect, the tumors in this case appeared even faster than under the influence of sunlight. It is very interesting that the animal body can be exposed to carcinogenic effects not only from the outside. These effects can have some substances formed in the body. Amazing? No. These primarily include hormones-products of the endocrine glands (adrenal glands, sex glands, pituitary, etc.). In fact, tumor processes are primarily processes of rapid reproduction and growth of cells. The role of hormones in the growth and development of the animal body is well known. For example, ovarian hormones cause an increase in the uterus and mammary glands during pregnancy, an increase and swelling of the mammary glands in a woman during menstruation, an excessive amount of pituitary hormone is the cause of a giant growth of a person or an ugly increase in certain parts of the body – fingers, nose (so-called acromegaly).
At the present time, I can say for sure that the influence of the endocrine glands, especially sexual, on the development of tumors is not in doubt. The carcinogenic effect of ovarian hormones is not based on the fact that they contain some substance that is a carcinogen in its chemical composition, but on the physiological effect of these hormones on the cells of the mammary glands. Under the influence of estrogenic hormones, increased reproduction of these cells begins, which seems to create a predisposition for further tumor transformation of them. Of course, it should not be understood that a woman’s normal pregnancy and menstrual cycles are fraught with some danger from this point of view. For example, women in the period of extinction of menstruation in the uterus often develop fibromyomas-tumors of a benign nature. Similar observations were obtained in the experiment.
It turns out some contradiction: on the one hand, the increased content of the hormone stimulates the formation of tumors, on the other – and an insufficient amount of the hormone is also the cause of their occurrence. I can explain this paradox as follows: the main importance is the violation of hormonal balance-the ratio between the amounts of different types of hormones in the body, which is normally due to the close relationship of the endocrine glands is always maintained at a certain constant level. It has long been noticed that tumors often occur where some time ago there was some, even a single, injury, such as a bruise. Especially often
the connection between the appearance of the tumor and the injury can be established, for example, in a malignant bone tumor-sarcoma, which affects the bones of the hip, Shin, shoulder. The mammary glands and testicles are predisposed to the appearance of tumors due to trauma. All these factors that contribute to the appearance of a tumor (exposure to chemicals, various sources of radiation, physical injuries, etc.), have something in common, namely, they all cause irritation of tissue cells, in one way or another damage them.
To be honest, all of the above facts have been tested on animals. Yes, the world is cruel, but timely preventive research can prevent the disease itself and save hundreds of lives. Laboratories have long developed a way to transplant tumors from one animal to another. A piece of tumor taken from an animal with a tumor is placed under the skin of a healthy animal, and in some cases it takes root there. The tumor cells continue to multiply, the tumor grows and develops, but already in a new host. Apparently, the success of the experiment can not be counted on, because the tumor cells are completely destroyed, even the smallest particles of them remained on the filter. However, in some cases, the tumor still develops. In an effort to explain this phenomenon, scientists have suggested that tumor cells contain a virus that is the causative agent of this tumor. The cells are destroyed, destroyed, but the virus is intact. Paradox? Not quite. Its particles are so small that they are not always visible even with the help of a special electron microscope, which gives a magnification of tens of thousands of times, and they, of course, freely pass through the most reliable filter.
As you can see, none of the considered theories of the origin of cancer is completely exhaustive. Yes, because one factor can be the cause of another, as well as their combined action can lead to the development of a tumor, so now the most recognized is the so-called multifactorial theory of cancer. The essence of it is to recognize that the occurrence of a tumor can have a variety of harmful effects on the body-physical, chemical, biological, etc. The problem of preventing cancer by eliminating external stimuli and treating precancerous diseases now has a solid science-based and practice-tested Foundation. The list of precancerous diseases is limited, and they themselves do not necessarily turn into cancer. Sometimes it is enough to eliminate the harmful effects of the external environment, to observe food hygiene, housing, personal hygiene, to give up bad habits forever and to cure metabolic disorders, so that the precancerous disease passed on its own. In other cases, it is required in addition to the listed measures to apply treatment, but always in a timely manner, preventing the onset of the disease.
Finally, let’s look at the factors that affect the development of the tumor. Currently, scientists have more than 400 different physical, chemical, biological factors that can cause pre-cancer. However, it should be repeated that even deliberately harmful effects can not always lead to the development of cancer on the basis of precancerous.
Carcinogenic factors are divided into physical, chemical and biological. Physical factors should include solar rays-solar radiation, various radioactive substances, x-rays, cosmic rays, ultrasonic vibrations, sharp temperature effects-burns and frostbite, mechanical injuries.
Let’s start with our favorite sun, under which we love to sunbathe, especially somewhere on the Crimean coast. Not everything is so smooth! Excessive solar radiation is a potent physical carcinogen. You all know that the rays are the source of life and health on Earth. To strengthen the body, the doctor sometimes prescribes strictly dosed sun baths. If you do not observe the period of optimal exposure to the sun, you can get skin burns. Being naked, especially in the South of the country in the summer, in direct sunlight can lead not only to skin damage, but also to sunstroke, accompanied by high temperature, delirium, sometimes loss of consciousness. In the elderly a disease of the blood vessels of the heart may occur myocardial infarction. With long-term exposure to sunlight on the human skin, mainly on the exposed parts of the body-the face and hands, on the skin of the face, ears, lower lip, back of the hands can form dark spots that are precancerous diseases. Among the inhabitants of tropical countries with white skin, precancerous diseases of the lower lip are many times more common than among dark-skinned people, due to the protective properties of the skin pigment. As I have already said, and this must be firmly remembered, for the occurrence of pre-cancer, in addition to the gradual impact of specific or non-specific stimuli, you need a pathological state of metabolism – the inferiority of the immune system. If the processes of metabolism in the body occur within the limits of physiological norms, if the conditions of life, work, rest and nutrition are full, then this protects a person from precancerous. For protection from the sun, Europeans who live in hot sub-Equatorial and Equatorial countries, where direct sunlight contains a large amount of ultraviolet rays, wear mostly white clothes.
The action of x-rays and radium rays is based on high-intensity energy radiation. The amount of it necessary for the treatment of the patient is prescribed by a doctor, a specialist in radiation therapy. X-rays used in x-ray rooms of hospitals and clinics for preventive examinations of people or for the diagnosis of disease, can not cause diseases or complications in patients and are practically safe. At the beginning of our century, when they did not know the methods of protection against radiation, did not know exactly the boundaries between therapeutic and threatening doses of radiation, often there were (mainly in the personnel serving these installations) precancerous skin diseases. And if the sick staff did not leave work and continued for several years to be irradiated day by day, skin cancer developed. Of the lesions of the radiant energy of the internal organs, leukemia is especially often observed, characterized by a sharp drop in the number of white blood cells in the blood. If you protect yourself in a timely manner from although very weak, but long-acting radiation sources, precancerous diseases will not occur. When nuclear explosions occur in the atmosphere, radioactive rays and particles are scattered. The highest concentration of ionizing radiation is observed in the center, and it decreases to the periphery. However, the movement of the atmosphere, swirling and just the wind can carry a long distance radiation of high intensity and cause damage to living creatures and plants very far from the center of the explosion. From the point of view of the possibility of occurrence under the influence of these radiations of pre-cancer in humans, there is also a General oncological law: the dependence on the massiveness of the radiation dose and, most importantly, on its repetition, duration. Increased susceptibility to such irradiations is directly dependent on the state of metabolism, lack of body functions. As you know, the first atomic bombs were dropped over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. At the same time, in addition to the destruction of a large number of people in the center of the explosion, there were mass defeats on its periphery.
Already in the coming years, observations of people who survived the bombings and remained alive, showed first of all that among them there is an unusually high percentage of patients with leukemia. The disease is undoubtedly associated with a single, but massive radiation exposure. The disease occurred equally often in both men and women, and especially often in children and young men. Scars on the skin after wounds, burns, especially in combination with radiation exposure, are a precancerous, threatening transition to cancer. In recent years, attention has been drawn to new dangers arising from nuclear explosions – the formation of radioactive isotopes in the atmosphere. Among them, the most studied by the harmful effects on humans is the isotope strontium. After nuclear explosions, it stays very long in the atmosphere, on plants, in the dust that covers the walls and ground of cities, in the upper layer of the soil. Penetrating into the human body, strontium mainly settles and accumulates in the bones and bone marrow, it suppresses the formation of white blood cells in it – lymphocytes that free the body from cancer mutants, causes not only leukemia, but also painful growth of bone tissue, which should be regarded as a precancerous disease. In recent years, new radioactive isotopes have been discovered that penetrate the atmosphere, dust, animals and humans when released by nuclear energy explosions. It is an isotope of plutonium-a high-intensity carcinogen. The possibility of occurrence under the influence of plutonium precancerous diseases in humans is now being investigated by scientists around the world.
Ultraviolet radiation (quartz lamps), used for therapeutic purposes in dosages prescribed by a doctor, can not cause precancerous diseases. Only in cases of repeated overdoses can there be burns on the skin. Its use in pre-cancerous skin diseases can accelerate the transition from precancerous to cancer. This applies equally to other physiotherapy procedures.
Single skin burns themselves do not cause cancer, as modern methods of treatment can avoid the formation of scars on the site of burns. If there are dense blue-purple scars and if they are not treated, then over time they can develop cancer. The burn itself is not a pre-cancer, but at the same time post-burn scars should be regarded as a pre-cancer. However, not every such pre-cancer turns into cancer. The occurrence of cancer on the scars after burns is rare. There are some cases of rapid cancer formation after a single burn, but these cases are so rare, and single burns among the population are so frequent, that a direct link between the burn and cancer should be rejected. Single frostbite by the mechanism of its impact on the skin and tissues can be equated to a single burn. They are not a carcinogenic factor, but the scars formed at the sites of frostbite should be regarded as precancerous. Repeated systematic effects of high temperatures and cold have been well studied as factors that can cause precancerous diseases of the skin and mucous membranes-cracks, ulcers, long-term healing abrasions. They can be much more often than scars after a single burn and frostbite, be the site of cancer, especially if the influence of chemical carcinogens is added.
A dermatitis face, all sorts of cracks and sores on the hands from working outdoors, your skin, face and neck are constantly exposed to the winter cold air and summer’s dry wind and sun, especially difficult to cure. I can advise the best method. This prevention – wearing protective gloves (mittens), keeping the skin clean and the use of emollient creams and ointments. Single injuries are not regarded as a factor that can cause pre-cancer, and even more so cancer. However, it is difficult to reliably establish what exactly (primary trauma or subsequent irritation of the scar) caused the development of the tumor. After resorption of such hemorrhages, there are intra-tissue scars, which are regarded by some oncologists as precancerous; especially suspicious scars (hardening) after bruises of the breast in women. There is no doubt that repeated injuries, especially small household and industrial, various chemical products that fall on the scar, can contribute to the occurrence of cancer. Environmental chemicals contribute to the appearance of pre-cancer. Doctors have long known the carcinogenic effect of coal tar. Experiments not only confirmed the fact of Carcinogenicity of coal tar, but also showed that the occurrence of cancer in animals is preceded by non-cancerous diseases. In the areas of the skin of mice that were systematically smeared with coal tar, first appeared areas of irritation, dermatitis, then papillomas (benign tumors), and with continued smearing with coal tar after 3-4 months on the basis of these changes, cancer arose. This also proves that a malignant tumor never forms on healthy tissues.
As I have already said, a close study of the Carcinogenicity of coal tar has allowed scientists to identify a lot of important facts for cancer prevention. It turned out that not only coal tar, but also other products of coal processing, boiling at high temperature, shale with prolonged exposure to human skin cause the occurrence of precancerous diseases and in some cases cancer. In animal experiments, these substances cause precancerous not only when rubbed into the skin, but also when injected under the skin or into the abdominal cavity, in the bones, etc. The more often these substances are administered, the more likely the precancerous condition in experimental animals turns into cancer. Further study of this issue has shown that the carcinogenic is not the tar itself, but its various components – carcinogenic hydrocarbons. It is possible that other carcinogenic hydrocarbons are present in coal shale resins. Was widely known observations of the doctors that work in the production of aniline dyes are relatively common cancer of the urinary bladder. Investigating the causes of Carcinogenicity of aniline, chemists found that not the aniline itself, but its constituent naphthylamine is a carcinogen. Long-term systematic influence of this hydrocarbon is necessary for papilloma to become the basis for cancer. The fact of the occurrence of bladder cancer in workers of the aniline industry led to the study of professional precancerous diseases. Each new chemical, before it will be established mass industrial production, is tested for the possibility of carcinogenic action. It is clear that these tests are carried out in animal laboratories.
Let’s stop and talk a little bit about the chemicals that you often come into contact with at home and that can cause cancer. Workers engaged in the production of dyes have contact with benzidine. It is excreted in the urine and can cause papillomas and other precancerous diseases in the bladder. The possibility of their transition to cancer with prolonged exposure to benzidine has not yet been proven, but working with it is a harmful profession. Chromium salts can be carcinogens for workers in factories where they are produced or where products are coated with chromium salts. However, some scientists have doubts about the Carcinogenicity of chromium salts, as the hidden period from the beginning of contact to the development of precancerous very long, and during this time could affect the body and other carcinogens. In any case, the inhalation of chromium salts when working with it causes various pulmonary processes that can be regarded as precancerous. Especially close attention of oncologists was attracted to arsenic and its various salts. There were a number of reports in the medical press about the so-called arsenic cancer. A large number of precancerous diseases and a much smaller number of true cancer from exposure to arsenic salts are described by American scientists, and they found that arsenic salts can cause precancerous, and in some cases, with long-term exposure, and cancer of the skin, lungs, bladder, liver. Our legislation protects workers from occupational diseases. At harmful enterprises, reduced working hours and additional leave are introduced, and workers are given milk as the best antidote against arsenic and other harmful products of production. It is allowed to work at such enterprises no more than 20-25 years. These are state-wide health measures, but the workers themselves must strictly implement all preventive protective measures, and not treat them lightly, which, unfortunately, sometimes occurs. Measures of state and individual protection have led to the fact that cancer diseases in enterprises where workers are exposed to carcinogens are almost not observed. However, it should be remembered that if the worker appears predrak, it is necessary to immediately stop working at the enterprise where the person is ill. As shown by observations on humans and experiments on animals, it is enough to exclude the influence of carcinogens, as precancerous disease itself is eliminated. Sometimes a short treatment is enough to bring the body out of the painful state. The effect of carcinogens is studied not only in professional conditions, but also in everyday life. At the same time, preventive measures are being developed. It is forbidden to use drinking water, the sources of which are located near arsenic mines and blast furnaces, food products, for some reason contaminated with arsenic in doses that are not poisonous even with repeated doses of drugs containing arsenic salts in their composition. All these drugs are currently withdrawn from use in our country and can only occasionally be prescribed for special indications by a doctor. In cities and towns located near the mines where arsenic is extracted, there may be an admixture of arsenic salts in the dust. It turned out that in cities located near arsenic mines or having enterprises working with arsenic, its content in urban dust is 3 times higher than in other cities. It was found that arsenic is contained in tobacco and tobacco smoke. If there are small doses of arsenic in the air, then almost if the hygiene of cities is observed, its Carcinogenicity does not pose a risk for the occurrence of precancerous diseases. At the same time finding in the air of another carcinogen-benzpyrene-their compounds have a negative effect on the person is already more noticeable, and then there is a real danger of pre-cancer. The large distribution of gasoline in our age could not fail to attract the attention of oncologists. In industry, various oils and mixtures obtained during the distillation of oil are also widely used. A careful study of these products revealed either complete absence or extremely weak carcinogenic effect. Meanwhile, experiments have shown that working with these substances without precautions can cause a number of chronic diseases of the skin and lungs. Additional action of other, mainly household, harms can lead to precancerous diseases. Particular attention was drawn to the products of incomplete combustion of gasoline in faulty carburetors
engines. The resulting carbon dioxide is the strongest carcinogen that causes, as a rule, in the experiment cancer in animals. In people, with frequent inhalation of incomplete combustion products of gasoline, bronchitis is observed; when carbon dioxide is dissolved in fats consumed in food, acute gastritis occurs first, with the passage of time passing into chronic gastritis. These diseases are regarded as precancerous. If arsenic is added to this from the air and from tobacco smoke, then there is a synergy of these carcinogens – a real threat of precancerous lung disease from inhaling these products, and from swallowing saliva soaked in tobacco smoke and tar-chronic gastritis. In total, more than 400 chemical carcinogens have been identified and synthesized. In recent years, oncologists have been aggressively investigating from the point of view of Carcinogenicity nitrosamines, which have a variety of practical applications: as a semi-product in the synthesis of dyes and various amino acids, as various dyes in the industry in combination with heavy metals. Synthetic carcinogens are most active recognized methylcholanthrene. A special interest in this chemical compound is caused by the fact that it was obtained by artificial decomposition of deoxycholic acid, which is found in a healthy living organism. For example, at the beginning of our century, when doctors and staff of x-ray rooms did not have protective devices when using x-rays for diagnostic purposes, it was found that only after 6 years of constant occupation as a radiologist they had dermatitis, trophic processes on the skin of the hands, and sometimes on the face, ulceration, long-term healing, sluggish necrotic processes in the tissues. Cancer research did not detect, and only after 9-12 years, and sometimes later, persistently progressive, untreatable skin cancer was detected. Therefore, the latent period of occurrence of precancerous and cancer under the influence of the action of carcinogens on the body has its own laws, the study of which is very promising. In an animal experiment, it turned out that you can artificially manage the latent period-to make it shorter or longer.
Many other important factors have been identified in cancer biology, when scientists began to use carcinogenic substances to reproduce tumors. Again, all research was conducted primarily on animals. Here are a few more studies that were conducted to study the effects of carcinogens depending on the life of animals. Accordingly, you can mentally imagine all the changes in the human body. When the mice were smeared with tar tar, some of them had both skin cancer and lung cancer. They indicate that it is possible to get cancer of internal organs in animals in organs remote from the place of introduction of the carcinogen, i.e. the carcinogen enters the General circle of blood and lymph circulation. These facts were clarified by direct injection of carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons into the bloodstream of mice. In this case, mice quickly form lung tumors. The resulting lung tumors were transplanted to other mice; usually, these transplants gave a positive result. There was a question about the ways of absorption of carcinogens. The speed of absorption of carcinogens and their activity is affected by other chemicals that are administered simultaneously with the carcinogen. Carcinogens are difficult to dissolve in water; benzene, chloroform, ether, acetone and various fats are used to dissolve them. These solvents also have their own specific effect on organs and tissues. A large number of different fats in the diet contributes to the rapid emergence of various types of cancer under the influence of carcinogens. The effect of a large amount of fat taken with food on the strengthening of the action of the carcinogen in experimental mice is now considered to be well proven. However, not all fats increase the carcinogenic effect of specific hydrocarbons. Vegetable fats are either inert, or, as, for example, coconut oil, are a factor in the experiment, even delaying or weakening the action of carcinogens. Data obtained in animal experiments cannot be directly transferred to humans. The Carcinogenicity of different hydrocarbons in relation to different species of animals varies, and for some species of animals known carcinogenic products are inactive. There seems to be both species and individual susceptibility to carcinogens.
In addition, the microbes around us-the sources of various diseases, can also affect the development of cancer. Parasites, introduced into the human body, with long-term cohabitation with him can be indirect pathogens of cancer. In this case, as carcinogens are toxins formed during the life of parasites, as well as long-existing irritation and inflammation of the tissues in which they are located. Opisthorchiasis is a liver disease caused by small worm-like parasites. A person becomes infected by eating raw or poorly cooked fish.
Observations of the occurrence of precancerous and cancer in experimental animals left unresolved the question of whether chemical hydrocarbons cause precancerous or whether they, once in the body, undergo some chemical transformations in living tissues and become truly active carcinogens. Pure cholesterol, which is constantly in the body, itself is not carcinogenic, but with some perversions of normal physiological functions of the body, mainly metabolic, it can be a source of formation in the body of methylcholanthren. The discovery of the possibility of the formation of carcinogenic substances within the body itself has set scientists very important tasks-to determine the nature of endogenous carcinogens, to isolate them in their pure form, to find out the causes of their occurrence, to search for ways to neutralize them and thus prevent and treat cancer. Carcinogens of biological nature. Bacteria, contact with which is either inevitable or very difficult to avoid, have never been and are not regarded as carcinogens. They can cause a person to have this or that disease, but no cases of cancer of a bacterial nature have ever been noted. In particular, the assumption about the Carcinogenicity of tuberculosis bacteria has not been recognized. On the other hand, the view that tuberculosis is an antagonist of cancer has also not been confirmed. On the contrary, it is established that long-existing lupus vulgaris-a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, can be the basis for skin cancer. It is also possible to develop lung cancer on the basis of long-existing scars left on the site of former tuberculosis foci. Parasites enter the body either by inhaling the infected air, or by swallowing with saliva, penetrating into the mouth due to the harmful habit of taking the end of the finger in the mouth in thought. In this case, parasites are introduced into the lungs, intestines, liver, caecum, bladder of a person, causing their precancerous changes or when true carcinogens penetrate, contributing to a shorter latent period of cancer development. Therefore, parasites themselves can not be considered as carcinogens.
Again, I want to return to the viral theory, since it is currently established that warty growths on the skin occur due to the introduction of a virus into it. Viruses are so small that they are not visible under a normal microscope. Viruses can cause numerous acute and chronic diseases. Viruses such as smallpox used to cause devastating epidemics, passing from person to person through direct contact. Viruses can also be transmitted by insects, such as viruses that cause taiga encephalitis, yellow fever. The virus can only reproduce in cells that are sensitive to it. There is no doubt that some animal tumors are caused by viruses. However, there are still a large number of cancers in animals, the viral origin of which can not be proved. All attempts to isolate or in any other way to prove the presence of a specific cancer virus in human tumors to date have also failed. Precancerous processes, in particular benign tumors, are also studied from the point of view of the possibility of their occurrence under the influence of the virus. As I have already said, a condyloma-a warty tumor located on or near the external genitals-is a viral disease. This confirms its viral origin, since during sterilization, ordinary bacteria die, and viruses remain active. Laryngeal papillomas also occur under the influence of the virus, which is proved by the grafting of the filtrate of this tumor. In recent years, it has been noted that the disease contagious mollusk on the skin appear multiple, sometimes single nodules pale pink, often wet, not giving any temperature or pain. This serious disease requires immediate treatment, since, spreading through the human body, it can cause either purulent diseases, or, with a long course, go into cancer. Its causative agent is a filtered virus.
However, do not forget that cancer cells are the body’s own cells undergoing change. They occur throughout his life, but are reliably destroyed and removed by immune-protective forces. Food products consumed by people, as a rule, do not
contain neither chemical, nor physical, nor biological carcinogens, but can be formed in the process of cooking and adding to it various flavoring substances. Fats when boiled with liquids do not decompose and can not be considered carcinogens. Feeding mice such a long-term overheated oil caused them to develop gastritis first after 2-4 months, then papillomas, while continuing to feed these fats, stomach cancer occurred. Especially dangerous are fats that are re-heated at high temperatures, and fats that are superheated to the limit when they have already started to burn. Such fats are classified as carcinogens. Spices and sharp substances can also have a carcinogenic effect if they are taken in excess and systematically from year to year. The use of them occasionally in small quantities is not dangerous in terms of their Carcinogenicity. Food itself can not cause cancer in humans, but improperly applied diets can lead to diseases of the digestive organs-the esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, large intestines, disrupt metabolism, weaken the human immune defense, and then creates a favorable ground for the occurrence of precancerous under the influence of carcinogens of the environment. Dust in the air, carcinogens in the atmosphere of cities. When studying the air of English cities, the presence of benzpyrene in smoke and dust was revealed. It gets into the air from the pipes of heating systems and industrial enterprises working on coal or oil, from the exhaust pipes of cars, especially when incomplete combustion of gasoline. It is noted that in winter the concentration of benzpyrene in the air of English cities is much higher than in summer. Due to the increase in air pollution in cities in England, the death rate from lung cancer increases significantly from year to year. When observing and studying the exhaust smoke of vehicles, the content of carbon dioxide was found in it. Combining in the atmosphere with the product of arsenic, which is most often in the air of cities in winter, they, being synergists, act on a person as carcinogens of great strength.
In more detail I want to dwell on such a bad habit as Smoking. Tobacco is an annual plant of the Solanaceae family. To obtain Smoking tobacco, its leaves are subjected to a special treatment consisting of such processes as sorting, drying, fermentation, drying, grinding. A distinctive feature of tobacco is the presence of a special toxic substance-nicotine. In the process of Smoking a cigarette or cigarette, tobacco and paper are burned at a high temperature. Smoke drawn in by a smoker contains a huge amount of harmful substances: nicotine, carbon monoxide, traces of prussic acid, etc. Many people do not know a hundredth part of the harmful effects of tobacco smoke. Usually, knowledge about the dangers of Smoking is limited to the possibility of developing cancer. Everyone knows at least one person who, Smoking 40 cigarettes a day, lived to be eighty years old. This is actually true. However, for every person who is resistant to the effects of cigarette poison, there are 1,000 people exposed to it. Whichever way you look at the problem, cigarettes are highly toxic. And few of us have a Constitution that allows us to smoke without getting some kind of disease – mild or fatal. Cigarette smoke contains about 3 thousand known components. We have no idea of the effect on the body of many of these substances. However, it is well known that 16 of them can cause cancer. Nicotine is a highly addictive substance. The most dangerous for health is nicotine. Penetrating with smoke into the Airways and lungs, it is quickly absorbed through the mucous membranes. The information that a drop of pure nicotine can kill a horse is not an exaggeration. The picture of acute nicotine poisoning can be seen in novice smokers. With constant Smoking, a person’s resistance to nicotine gradually increases, which leads to the need to increase the daily dose of cigarettes. In the case of cessation of nicotine intake, the smoker develops the phenomenon of “cancellation”, i.e. painful physical and mental disorders, relieved or relieved after taking another dose of nicotine. Within a few weeks of starting Smoking, most people notice that their nervous system needs nicotine to maintain good health. In addition to this main reason for getting used to cigarettes, it is worth noting that tobacco, being a plant, contains a large number of different compounds that are used by the human body, such as Nickel and cobalt. Therefore, when trying to quit Smoking, not only the nervous system feels a lack of something, but the body can also experience a deficit, since substances absorbed through the lungs quickly penetrate the body and in a short time meet the needs without involving the intestines in this process. In other words, getting the necessary substances through the lungs, the intestines do not need to work so hard, and it stops the chemical processes. Therefore, if you quit Smoking, there may be a period of delay of several days before the intestines again begin to absorb the necessary substances. This factor should be taken into account when providing assistance in the fight against Smoking. Perhaps it is not necessary to explain how pernicious is the effect of tobacco on the lungs. A frequent consequence of chronic nicotine poisoning is “smoker’s bronchitis”, which gradually leads to the development of emphysema of the lungs. It is characterized by difficulty breathing, persistent shortness of breath, weakness, a sharp deterioration in working capacity. Nicotine is also a strong heart and vascular poison. A smoker does not know that only one cigarette makes his heart beat faster by 18-20 beats per minute. The number of heart contractions per day in smokers is more than 15-20 thousand. of Course, this can not but affect the state of the heart muscle. Smokers, without parting with a cigarette, make their heart work “on wear and tear”. Under the influence of nicotine, there are narrowing of blood vessels and changes in their walls, which contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Systematic Smoking is one of the main causes of blood vessel disease-endarteritis of the arteries of the lower leg and foot (this disease is also called intermittent lameness). Narrowing (obliteration) of blood vessels, which occurs as a result of increased growth of their inner shell, leads to the fact that distant from the heart parts of the body, especially the lower extremities, begin to be poorly supplied with blood, which can eventually lead to gangrene. Cancer is not the most common disease caused by Smoking. However, there is no doubt that Smoking increases the risk of cancer or directly causes cancer of the mouth, tongue, pharynx, larynx, bronchial tree, lungs, esophagus, stomach, bladder, skin and ovaries. It is worth Recalling that the development of the lungs stops only after twenty years. Smoking before this age disrupts the formation of lung tissue. Therefore, the earlier you start Smoking, the worse the prognosis.
One of the accompanying factors, as I have already said, is chronic inflammatory diseases. When the effect of the substance that caused the inflammation ceases, the latter ends either with the complete restoration of the normal epithelium, or with the formation of a scar in its place. It should be noted that if the scar tissue that occurs after mechanical injuries (wounds), burns and frostbite, as already noted above, is gradually subjected to either chemical or mechanical irritation, it can be the soil for the development of cancer. However, it is impossible to deny the fact that the long period of time elapsed from the formation of the scar to the appearance of cancer on it, suggests that there was an impact of any carcinogen from the external environment. On old, chronically current skin ulcers, long-term non-healing or often re-ulcerating scars, skin cancer may occur. It cannot be denied that the appearance of cancer on the ulcer is not the result of inflammation or irritation, but the influence of a carcinogen, since not all ulcers and scars are the basis for the development of cancer. Only 10 % (and maybe less) of chronic ulcers and re-ulcerating scars go into cancer. Many scientists claim that chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasia (bronchial dilation), bronchial asthma, emphysema of the lungs, pleurisy can turn into cancer only when exposed to carcinogens from tobacco smoke or polluted air. In some patients, doctors note that the ulcer or wound does not heal at all. This means that there is a constant irritant in the ulcer or wound, which threatens the risk of developing a malignant tumor, especially if the impact of a carcinogen is added. With systematic and radical treatment, recovery from precancerous diseases occurs. The scars that remain after their radical treatment do not tend to degenerate into cancer. Therefore, it is so important to detect these diseases in time and persistently treat them. This makes it very important to familiarize the population with the signs of precancerous diseases of various localities.
Yes, by the way, I want to tell you that such a pathology as metabolic disorders can affect the development of the process. The study of the causes of higher than in other countries, the incidence of stomach cancer in Japan revealed some features of the Japanese diet and gave reason to assume that, along with other reasons, it seems important to systematic deficiency of vitamin b in food.
The latter, as is known, is contained in the shells of cereals, and a significant portion of the diet of the Japanese is devoid of shell rice, containing a very small amount of vitamin B. In addition to proteins, fats, carbohydrates and vitamins, human food contains a certain amount of mineral salts and metal salts. At the same time, it is known that a cancer patient’s metabolism in the body is disturbed, in particular, the mineral metabolism suffers. This gave rise to very interesting observations. It is known that along with countries that have high rates of incidence of cancer of the digestive organs, there are also those where this incidence is much lower. Such unevenness can be established even among the republics of our country. It has been suggested that some geochemical factors may be important, namely the amount of salts of a number of metals contained in the external environment (soil, water) – magnesium, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, etc. These assumptions were based on the fact that some minimal amounts of these elements are absolutely necessary for the normal functioning of the human body, while their content in the external environment is not the same in different areas. Thus, in Armenia, the soil, rocks and water have a high content of magnesium. Lake Sevan, whose waters irrigate almost 1/3 of all irrigated areas of Armenia, is one of the three lakes in the world with the highest content of magnesium salts. That the high content of these salts is a factor related to the low incidence of stomach cancer has been confirmed by further research. Similar data were obtained for some other republics, and along with the determination of magnesium in the soil and water, the number of other trace elements – cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, etc. was studied. however, metabolic disorders, whether they relate to a lack of proteins, vitamins or are associated with a deficiency of a particular trace element, for the occurrence of tumor growth, apparently, do not have an independent value. Most likely, all these disorders begin to play a role only in the presence of certain changes in the tissues, which, as we have said before, are a prerequisite for the occurrence of cancer.